By Gary M. White, MD
Clubbing is the bulbous enlargement of terminal area of digits of hands and feet.
- Pulmonary disorders (bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, bronchiectasis, lung abscess)
- Cardiovascular disease (cyanotic congenital heart disease, infective endocarditis, cardiac tumors, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula)
- Gastrointestinal disorders (cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease)
- Thyroid Acropachy
- Isolated finding
Soft tissue hypertrophy of the distal finger, increased curvature of the nail, and a spongy sensation when the base of the nail is compressed are characteristic. Lovibond's angle is greater than 180 degrees.
Clubbing of the fingers in Pachydermoperiostosis.
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