Courtesy Michael O. Murphy, MD
Arterio-venous malformations (AVM) are high-flow vascular malformations. AVM are composed of abnormal vessels with many direct arterio-venous link (without capillary). Arteriovenous fistulae in contrast, can be acquired after external trauma. Various syndromes may be associated e.g. Parkes-Weber syndrome. About half are congenital, and the rest arise usually in the first 3 decades.
|I||Flat macule at birth. Asymptomatic stable. AV shunt may be detected by Doppler ultrasound|
|II||Growing, pulsatile, with local hyperthermia, thrill and wheeze. Tortuous vessels at puberty|
|III||Complicated AVM. E.g. may have ulceration, bleeding, continuous pain, and possibly necrosis and lytic bone lesions|
|IV||Associated with heart failure|
Intra-vascular embolization of afferent arteries as well as surgery may be done.
Actas Dermosifiliogr.2014;105:347-58 - Vol. 105 Num.4
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